PCs and Macs

Personal computers come in two main styles: PC and Mac. Both are fully functional, but they have a different look and feel, and many people prefer one or the other.


This type of computer began with the original IBM PC that was introduced in 1981. Other companies began creating similar computers, which were called IBM PC Compatible (often shortened to PC). Today, this is the most common type of personal computer, and it typically includes the Microsoft Windows operating system.


The Macintosh computer was introduced in 1984, and it was the first widely sold personal computer with a graphical user interface, or GUI (pronounced gooey). All Macs are made by one company (Apple), and they almost always use the Mac OS X operating system.

Hardware vs Software?

Hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer that can be seen and touched, while software is simply a collection of programs, data and procedures that perform various tasks on the computer system. Software can be seen but is not tangible.

Computer hardware can further be categorized into input devices such as scanners, keyboards, mouse and microphones, and output devices such as speakers, printers and monitors. Software is further categorized into application software like databases, web browsers, media players and office suits, programming software such as text editors, interpreters and compilers and system software such as operating systems and device drivers. Both the hardware and software components of a computer have to work in tandem to provide computerized functionality.


In a computer, hardware is what makes a computer work. A CPU processes information and that information can be stored in RAM or on a hard drive. A sound card can provide sound to speakers and a video card can provide an image to a monitor. All of this is hardware.

On that same computer, software can be installed and allow a person to interact with the hardware. An operating system, like Windows or Mac OS, is software. It provides a graphical interface for people to use the computer and other software on the computer. A person can create documents and pictures using software.

Can a computer run without software?

In most situations, yes, a computer can run without software being installed. However, if an operating system or interpreter is not found on the computer, it either generates an error or doesn’t output any information. Installing programs onto the computer in addition to an operating system gives the computer additional capabilities. For example, a word processor is not required, but it allows you to create documents and letters.

Can a computer run without hardware?

This depends on the hardware. Most computers require at least a display, hard drive, keyboard, memory, motherboard, processor, power supply, and video card to function properly. If any of these devices are missing or malfunctioning, an error is encountered, or the computer will not start. Adding hardware such as a disc drive (e.g. CD-ROM or DVD), modem, mouse, network card, printer, sound card, or speakers are not required, but give the computer additional functionality.

Types Of Computers

The main types of computer are supercomputers, mainframes, personal computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets and smartphones.  Each have different purposes and capabilities

Supercomputers have huge data storage capacities and unrivaled processing power. They are used by large organizations that require immense computing power. These computers are exceptionally expensive and very delicate. Housed in clean rooms, supercomputers must be kept free of dust and debris, and have to be constantly cooled because of the heat they generate.

Mainframe computers have considerably less power and capacity than supercomputers, but significantly more than personal computers. They are capable of processing billions of instructions per second and handle vast quantities of data simultaneously.

Personal computers are common in homes and offices throughout the world. Modern models have large storage capacities and run multiple applications simultaneously.

Modern laptops feature similar specifications to desktop computers, with the added bonus of being portable. However, laptops can feel heavy and battery life can be an issue if needing to work for long periods without being able to recharge.

Netbooks are smaller and lighter than laptops, but have considerably less storage capacity and power. However, their small size and minimal weight makes them attractive for browsing the web, checking emails and creating documents when not in the office.

Tablets and smartphones are similar in nature and operate on a touchscreen basis. They are user-friendly, lightweight and very convenient, being popular with people of all ages and backgrounds.



What is Computer?

A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You may already know that you can use a computer to type documents, send email, play games, and browse the Web. You can also use it to edit or create spreadsheets, presentations, and even videos.

The four basic types of computers are as under:
  • Supercomputer.
  • Mainframe Computer.
  • Minicomputer.
  • Microcomputer.

UCS Co-ordinates and Dimensions


In the following tutorial of Autocad, i have tried to help provide the basic concept of UCS co-ordination system and proper dimension and manual changes we can afford to do with UCS system and hence everything has been explained in a short video.

Feel Free to give us feedback that would be encouraging for us and we will try improve the level of our guidance.

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The quality that we call “humanity” can be achieved only through social living, for man cannot live without society— the complex network of social relationships, which interconnects human beings with one another. Our society gives content, direction and meaning to our lives, we in turn, in countless ways reshape the society that we leave for the next generation.

Social life, however, is not peculiar to humans and can also be found in animals — such as ants, bees, geese, elephants etc. But human society differs from animal’s society, for the former is created by human beings themselves and is learned and modified by each new generation, where as the later is based primarily on unlearned, instinctive patterns of behavior. More explicitly speaking, animal’s societies are bio-social or hereditary in nature, human society , on the other hand is/are so cio-cultural i.e. fulfils its needs through social interaction. However both societies are not just a chaotic collection of randomly interacting constituents.

Social structure

The pattern of relationships among the basic components in a social system is an essential factor of not only the human social living but also of the animals. The components provide the framework for all societies, although the precise, character of the components and the relationships among them vary from one society to another. Important components of a social structure are statuses, roles, groups and institutions. Let’s analyze their rote in social living.….


A status is a socially defined position in society. Every member of a society occupies a number of statuses—such as a student, a professor, an engineer, administer, son, father, mother and so on. A person’s status indicates where that individual “fits” in the society and how he/she should relate to other people. Broadly, a person can have two types of statuses. One, ascribed status — that is attached to people on grounds over which they have no control, for instance being young, old, male female etc. Two, achieved status — that depends to some extent on characteristics over which the individual has some control, for example, a university graduate, a professional etc.


A role is a set of expected behavior patterns and obligations attached to a particular social status. The distinction between status and role is a simple one: an individual occupies a status, and plays a role. A university professor, for instance, is a social status. Attached to this status is a professional role, defined by social norms prescribing how the occupier of the status should behave. The status of a professor is a fixed position in a society, but a role is more flexible, for different occupants of the status actually play their roles in somewhat different ways. The status of a university professor includes one role as a teacher, one as colleague to other professors, one role as a researcher, and perhaps other roles such as writer of scholarly articles. The roles we play in life thus depend on the statuses we happen to occupy at a given lime, and the two simultaneously determine our behavior. If you are talking to your professor us a student, you will behave differently than you might when years later, you return to visit the campus as a professional.

Similarly we respond to people according to the roles they play for us. Roles enable us to structure our own behavior along socially expected lines. We can anticipate the behavior of others in most situations and we can fashion our own actions accordingly.


Most social behavior takes place within and among groups, which are constantly being formed and reformed. A group is a number of persons whose  roles are interrelated. The distinctive characteristics of any society depend largely on the nature and activities of the groups that it contains.

Groups like statuses can be classified into two main types:

  1. Primary Group: A primary group consists of a small number of people, who interact over a relatively long period. The members know one another personally and interact in a manner that is informal and has at least some emotional depth, for instance, family, friends, close neighbors etc.
  2. Secondary Group: On the contrary the secondary group consists of a number of people who interact on a relatively temporary, anonymous and impersonal basis. The members either do not know one another personally, or at best know one another only in terns of particular formal roles. Moreover, they are established to serve some specific purpose and people are generally less emotionally committed than they are to their primary groups. Examples of secondary groups are formal organizations such as corporations, political parties, or class fellows etc.


Every society must meet certain basic social needs, if it is to survive and provide a satisfying life for its members. For example, children must be raised and cared for important social values must be shared and upheld social order must be maintained, and so on. Each society, in order to meet these basic needs, creates patterns of thought and action that provide an appropriate solution for these recurrent challenges. These patterns of behavior are what we call institutions.

Put another way, an institution is a stable cluster of values, norms, statuses, roles, and groups that develops around a basic social need. Thus the family institution provides for the care of children. The educational institution transmits cultural knowledge to the young. The political institution allocates power and maintains order. Within very broad limits, “human nature” is what we make of it, and what we make of it depends largely on the culture in which we live. Unlike animals, we human beings are not born with rigid, complex, behavior patterns that enable us to survive in specific habitats, we in fact learn and invent means of adopting physical and social environment. This learned and shared behavior is what we call culture.

More explicitly speaking, Culture is the social heritage i.e. our modes of lining, our thinking, our interaction, literature, religion, recreation, values, habits etc that we acquire through learning.

The term Civilization on the other hand refers to the utilitarian order of things. In other words, civilization is the materials culture i.e. the external achievements of man. While Culture is the realm of values, of styles, of emotional attachment, all things pertaining to non-material phenomena. It is a whole, the round of life in its entire sweep that comprises both the non-material and material objects of human living.

We create our culture, but culture in turn creates us. We make our own social environment, inventing, and sharing the rules and patterns of behavior that shape our lives, and we use our learned knowledge to modify the natural environment. Our shared culture is what makes social life possible. Culture frees us from reliance on the slow, random, accidental process of physical evolution, by offering us a flexible and efficient means of adopting to changing conditions.

Culture also provides a system of social control — a set of means of ensuring that people generally behave in expected and approved ways. It is a social process by which the individual is made group responsive, and by which social organization is built and maintained. Social control comprises two types of patterns of control, i.e. formal and informal.

  1. 1. Formal control: This type of technique is exercised formally over the individual’s behavior through government agencies such as the police etc.
  2. Informal control: The informal sources of social control are values and social norms.



Values are socially shared ideas about what is good, right and desirable. They are abstract general concepts, which originate in the social structure and culture. People while living in society, experience various facts in life. On the basis of collective living they develop customs, rituals and conventions. This customary behavior provides experiences of good things and ideas to the people. It is these collective experiences of good that we call- values. Social norms on the other hand, are shared rules or guidelines that prescribe the behavior appropriate in a given situation. They define how people ought to behave under particular circumstances in a particular society.

Values influence the content of norms, where as norms safeguards values. For instance, if a society values education highly, its norms will make provisions for mass schooling. The norms that require a student to be more polite to his/her teacher than to his/her fellow students expresses the value that society places on respect for age (experience) and learning. Values are hard customs of society, a part of the routine behavior and hence the core of culture. However both values and social norms vary from society to society and culture to culture.

Speaking of the human society as a whole, human conscious does upheld certain values as uniform and universal — such as justice, honesty, truthfulness, compassion etc.

Values and social norms ensure that social life proceeds smoothly, as they give us guidelines for our own behavior and reliable expectations for the behavior of others. That is why they are called shared expectations of the group members. Norms are classified into two types, folkways and mores


Folkways are the recognized ways of behavior and acting in society, which arise spontaneously within a group to meet the problems of social living. They are unconscious and uncoordinated adjustments and ordinary conventions of everyday life. For instance the rules of eating and drinking, meeting and departing, types of dressing, ceremonies and rituals for different situations and the manners and etiquettes of institutional situations such as family, school, market masque etc. As they are ordinary conventions of everyday life their violation and the punishment on them is unwritten. They in fact unconsciously appear and disappear in society.




Mores are strong norms that are regarded as morally significant, and their violation unlike folkways is considered a serious matter. Their origin like folkways, however, is social interaction. Mores determines that item in society holds such position and holds such value. The difference between folkways and mores vary only in their degree of intensity. Wearing cloths for instance are mores and the cloths of different styles are folkways. Although informal, their violation creates a serious threat to social order. For instance, entering one’s house without permission, misuse of religious symbols, desecration of the national flag etc. all brings a strong social reaction. Some norms particularly mores are encoded in law.


A rule that has been formally implemented by a political authority and backed by the power of the state. Law is the formal source of social control. It is also a custom but refined according to the social situation. Law is the guardian of the highest values (life, honor, properly) of society.

The purpose of all the different means of social control is a social process by which (lie individual is made group responsive, and by which social organization is built and maintained.

Most social control, however, does not have to be exercised through the direct influence of other people. We exercise it ourselves, internally. Growing up in society involves the internalization of norms — the unconscious process of absorbing cultural norms. We think and act in ways that are to great extent shaped by the society we live in.


The social inter dependencies, organized kinship, neighborhood and other forms of affiliations provide ties on which individuals count for goods, services and emotionally significant symbols of permanence, particularly at times of crises and deprivation. This is what we call society or social living. This kind of support provides a minimal sense of long-term security, which most individuals need. The social structure publicly defines virtue and vice establishes a predictable moral environment and provides unambiguous conditions for interpersonal trust and positive self-regard. Tin’s order gives the individual both the satisfaction of living a good life according to community standards and the comfort of being able to trust others in the community.

Relationships define the purpose of adult activities, motivating individuals to direct their efforts towards the benefits of others (their family), towards the approval; of those whom they respect (elders), and toward recognition within groups they value (their community). It benefits the individual by setting personal achievements in a collective context that gives it additional meanings. Thus personal security, community trusts, positive self-regard and group morale are all benefits possible from social linkages, through the support, structure and motivation they provide for individuals of a given society. Their importance can be assessed by imagining life without them.




Combination of words having its own subject and predicate. It may either work as a sentence in some cases while in other cases it makes part of a sentence.

Example: The patient had died before the doctor came.

                                       Kinds of Clauses:

  • Independent /Main/Principal clause.

A kind of clause which has its subject and predicate. It does not depend on the other clause for the completion of its meaning. It may work/function as a sentence. It stands on its own (It keeps its own meaning).

Example: They had played cricket before I went.


  • Dependent/Subordinate clause.

Kind of clause has its subject and predicate but depends on the other clause for the completion of its meaning. It makes part of a sentence.

Example: They had played cricket before I went.

I went is the independent clause.


  • Noun clause.

Kind of clause which has subject and predicate that functions like a noun in sentence. It makes part of a sentence.

Example: I planned that we should go on trip to the mountains.


  • Adjective/Adjectival clause.

Kind of clause having its subject and predicate that function as an adjective in a sentence. It makes part of a sentence.

Example: I bought a car which has black color.

Which has black color is Adjective clause.


  • Adverb clause.

Kind of clause which has its own subject and predicate that function as an adverb in a sentence, It makes part of a sentence.

Example: He get tired because he ran fast

He ran fast is Adverb clause.


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Combination of words which does not have a subject and predicate but it give you some sense/ half sense. it makes part of a sentence.

She is (writing a letter)

She is subject

(Writing a letter ) is the predicate. Which is part of sentence other then subject.




1) Noun Phrase

Type of phrase having no subject and predicate but works like a noun in sentence. It make part of the sentence.


We have planned to take a trip to the mountain.

  1. a) No complete meaning
  2. b) Works as noun.

2) Adjective phrase

Also called adjectival phrase. Combination of words having no subject and predicate that works like an adjective in a sentence. It makes part of a sentence.


I bought a car with red color.

3) Adverb Phrase.

Combination of words having no subject and predicate that functions like an adverb in a sentence. It makes part of a sentence.


Ali runs with slow speed.

4) Prepositional phrase

Combination of words which does not have subject and predicate but it works like a preposition in sentence is called prepositional phrase. It makes part of a sentence.


The book on the table is new.

5) Infinitive phrase

Combination of words which does not have its subject and predicate but have infinitive or an object/modifier. it makes part of a sentence.


  1. a) to be wealthy is a bless.
  2. b) To laugh all the time is stupidity.

6) Gerund phrase

Combination of words having a subject and predicate that works like a gerund in a sentence. it makes part of a sentence.


  1. a) Cooking Pakistanis food is exciting.

1st form + ing + noun = Gerund.

7) Participle phrase

Kind of phrase which does not have a subject and predicate but it works like a participle in sentence. it makes part of a sentence.


  1. a) Supported by all, I decided to sit in the examination hall.
  2. b) being a teacher, i have to guide you.


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PEC Code Of Conduct

Code of Conduct:
(SRO 1463 (1) / 78)

Article 1

1.        This Code of Conduct may be called the Pakistan Engineering Council Code of Conduct.

2.        This shall come into force at once.

3.        This shall apply to all members of the Pakistan Engineering Council.

Article 2

To maintain, uphold and advance the honor and dignity of the engineering professional in accordance with this Code, a member shall-

1.                  uphold the ideology of Pakistan;

2.        be honest, impartial and serve the country, his employer, clients and the public at large with devotion;

3.        strive to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession;

4.        use his knowledge and skill for the advancement and welfare of mankind;

5.        promote and ensure the maximum utilization of human and material resources of Pakistan for achieving self-reliance;

6.        and not sacrifice the national interest for any personal gain.

Article 3

1.                  A member shall be guided in all professional matters by the highest standards of integrity and act as a faithful agent or a trustee for each of his client and employer.

2.        A member shall-

a.        be realistic and honest in all estimates, reports, statements and testimony and shall carry out his professional duties without fear or favor;

b.        admit and accept his own errors when proved and shall refrain form distorting or altering the facts justifying his decision or action;

c.        advise his client or employer honestly about the viability of the project entrusted to him;

d.        not accept any other employment to the detriment of his regular work or interest without the consent of his employer;

e.        not attempt to attract an engineer from another employer by false or misleading pretenses;

f.        not restrain an employee from obtaining a better position with another employer; and

g.        not endeavor to promote his personal interest at the expense of the dignity and integrity of the profession.

Article 4

A member shall have utmost regard for the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of his professional duties and for that purpose he shall

1. regard his duty to the public welfare as paramount;

2.        seek opportunities to be of service in civic affairs and work for the advancement of the safety, health and well-being of the community;

3.        not undertake, prepare, sign, approve or authenticate any plan, design or specifications which are not safe for the safety, health, welfare of a person or persons, or are not in conformity with the accepted engineering standards and if any client or an employer insists on such unprofessional conduct, he shall notify the authorities concerned and withdraw form further service on the project; and

4.        point out the consequences to his client or the employer if his engineering judgment is over-ruled by any non-technical person.

Article 5

1. A member shall avoid all acts or practices likely to discredit the dignity or honor of the profession and for that purpose he shall not advertise his professional services in a manner derogatory to the dignity of the profession. He may, however, utilize the following means of identification.

a.        professional cards and listing in recognized and dignified publications and classified section of the telephone directories,

b.        sign boards at the site of his office or projects for which he renders services; and

c.        brochures, business cards, letter-heads and other factual representations of experience, facilities, personnel and capacity to render services.

2.        A member may write articles for recognized publications but such articles should be dignified, free form ostentations or laudatory implications, based on factual conclusions and should not imply other than his direct participation in the work described unless credit is given to others for their share of the work.

3.        A member shall not allow himself to be listed for employment using exaggerated statements of his qualifications.

Article 6

1.        A member shall endeavor to extend public knowledge and appreciation of engineering profession, propagate the achievements of the profession and protect it from misrepresentation and misunderstanding.

Article 7

1.        A member shall express an opinion of an engineering subject only when founded on adequate knowledge, experience and honest conviction.

Article 8

1.        A member shall undertake engineering assignments only when he possesses adequate qualifications, training and experience. He shall engage or advise for engaging of the experts and specialists whenever the client’s or employers’ interest are best served by such service.

2.        A member shall not discourage the necessity of other appropriate engineering services, designs, plans or specifications or limit-free competition by specifying materials of particular make or model.

Article 9

1.        A member shall not disclose confidential information concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former client or employer without his consent.

Article 10

1.        A member shall uphold the principles of appropriate and adequate compensation for those engaged in engineering work and for that purpose he shall not-

a.        undertake or agree to perform any engineering service free except for civic, charitable, religious, or non-profit organizations or institutions;

b.        undertake professional engineering work at a remuneration below the accepted standards of the profession in the discipline;

c.        and accept remuneration from either an employee or employment agency for giving employment.

A member shall offer remuneration commensuration with the qualifications and experience of an engineer employed by him.

A member working in any sales section or department shall not offer or give engineering consultation, or designs, or advice other than specifically applying to the equipment being sold in that section or department.

Article 11

1.        A member shall not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than one party for the same service, or for services pertaining to the same work unless all interested parties give their consent to such compensation.

2.        A member shall not accept:-

a.        financial or other considerations, including free engineering design, from material or equipment suppliers for specifying their products; and

b.        commissions or allowances, directly or indirectly, from contractors or other parties dealing with his clients or employer in connection with work for which he is professionally responsible.

Article 12

1.        A member shall not compete unfairly with another member or engineer by attempting to obtain employment, professional engagements or personal gains by taking advantage of his superior position or by criticizing other engineers or by any other improper means or methods.

2.        An engineer shell not attempt to supplant another engineer in a particular employment after becoming aware that definite steps have been taken towards other’s employment.

3.        A members shall not accept part-time engineering work at a fee or remuneration less than that of the recognized standard for a similar work and without the consent of his employer if he is already in another employment.

4.        A member shall not utilize equipment, supplies, laboratory or office facilities of his employer or client for the purpose of private practice without his consent.

Article 13

1.                  A member shall not attempt to injure, maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputation, prospects, practices or employment of another engineer or member.

2.        A member engaged in private practice shall not review the work of another engineer for the same client, except with knowledge of such engineer or, unless the connection of such engineer with work has been terminated;

3.        provided that a member shall be entitled to review and evaluate the work of other engineers when so required by his employment duties.

4.        A member employed in any sales or industrial concern shall be entitled to make engineering comparisons of his products with products of other suppliers.

Article 14

1.                  A member shall not associate with or allow the use of his name by an enterprise of questionable character nor will he become professionally associated with engineers who do not conform to ethical practices or with persons not legally qualified to tender the professional service for which the association is intended.

2.        A member shall strictly comply with the bye-laws, orders and instructions issued by the Pakistan Engineering Council from time to time in professional practice and shall not use the association with a non-engineering corporation, or partnership as a cloak for any unethical act or acts.

Article 15

1.                  A member shall give credit for engineering work to those to whom credit is due, recognize the proprietary interests of others and disclose the name of a person or persons who may be responsible for his designs, inventions, specifications, writings, or other accomplishments.

2.        When a member uses designs, plans, specifications, data and notes supplied to him by a client or an employer or are prepared by him in reference to such client or the employer’s work such designs, plans, specifications, data and notes shall remain the property of the client and shall not be duplicated by a member for any use without the express permission of the client.

3.        Before undertaking any work on behalf of a person or persons for making improvements, plans, designs, inventions or specifications which may justify copyright or patent, a member shall get ownership of such improvements, plans, designs, inventions or specifications determined for the prupose of registration under the relevant copyright and patent laws.

Article 16

1.                  A member shall disseminate professional knowledge by interchanging information and experience with other members or engineers and students to provide them opportunity for the professional development and advancement of engineers under his supervision.

2.        A member shall encourage his engineering employees to improve their knowledge, attend and present papers at professional meetings and provide a prospective engineering employee with complete information on working conditions and his proposed status of employment and after employment keep him informed of any change in such conditions.


Article 17

1.                  A member employed abroad shall order his conduct according to this Code, so far as this is applicable, and the laws and regulations of the country of his employment.

Article 18

1.                  A member shall report unethical professional practices of an engineer or a member with substantiating data to the Pakistan Engineering Council and appear as a witness, if required.

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