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Clause

Clause

Combination of words having its own subject and predicate. It may either work as a sentence in some cases while in other cases it makes part of a sentence.

Example: The patient had died before the doctor came.

                                       Kinds of Clauses:

  • Independent /Main/Principal clause.

A kind of clause which has its subject and predicate. It does not depend on the other clause for the completion of its meaning. It may work/function as a sentence. It stands on its own (It keeps its own meaning).

Example: They had played cricket before I went.

 

  • Dependent/Subordinate clause.

Kind of clause has its subject and predicate but depends on the other clause for the completion of its meaning. It makes part of a sentence.

Example: They had played cricket before I went.

I went is the independent clause.

 

  • Noun clause.

Kind of clause which has subject and predicate that functions like a noun in sentence. It makes part of a sentence.

Example: I planned that we should go on trip to the mountains.

 

  • Adjective/Adjectival clause.

Kind of clause having its subject and predicate that function as an adjective in a sentence. It makes part of a sentence.

Example: I bought a car which has black color.

Which has black color is Adjective clause.

 

  • Adverb clause.

Kind of clause which has its own subject and predicate that function as an adverb in a sentence, It makes part of a sentence.

Example: He get tired because he ran fast

He ran fast is Adverb clause.

 

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Phrase

Phrase

Combination of words which does not have a subject and predicate but it give you some sense/ half sense. it makes part of a sentence.

She is (writing a letter)

She is subject

(Writing a letter ) is the predicate. Which is part of sentence other then subject.

 

TYPES OF PHRASE:

 

1) Noun Phrase

Type of phrase having no subject and predicate but works like a noun in sentence. It make part of the sentence.

Example

We have planned to take a trip to the mountain.

  1. a) No complete meaning
  2. b) Works as noun.

2) Adjective phrase

Also called adjectival phrase. Combination of words having no subject and predicate that works like an adjective in a sentence. It makes part of a sentence.

Example

I bought a car with red color.

3) Adverb Phrase.

Combination of words having no subject and predicate that functions like an adverb in a sentence. It makes part of a sentence.

Example

Ali runs with slow speed.

4) Prepositional phrase

Combination of words which does not have subject and predicate but it works like a preposition in sentence is called prepositional phrase. It makes part of a sentence.

Example

The book on the table is new.

5) Infinitive phrase

Combination of words which does not have its subject and predicate but have infinitive or an object/modifier. it makes part of a sentence.

Example

  1. a) to be wealthy is a bless.
  2. b) To laugh all the time is stupidity.

6) Gerund phrase

Combination of words having a subject and predicate that works like a gerund in a sentence. it makes part of a sentence.

Example

  1. a) Cooking Pakistanis food is exciting.

1st form + ing + noun = Gerund.

7) Participle phrase

Kind of phrase which does not have a subject and predicate but it works like a participle in sentence. it makes part of a sentence.

Example

  1. a) Supported by all, I decided to sit in the examination hall.
  2. b) being a teacher, i have to guide you.

 

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