UET Dub #3

Junaid & Hamza is having fun in the Hostel.





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UET Dub #2

Muhammad Maisam

Electrical Department, UET PESHAWAR




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UET Dub# 1


Muhammad Maisam

UET PESHAWAR, Electrical Department



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Introduction to Entrance Test Preparation

I am currently enrolled in UET Peshawar after securing 79th position in ETEA TEST of 2016. I am currently enjoying my days in UET, it’s a lovely atmosphere here. I am looking forward for You to do good in your entrance test and design life of your own choices.

I have decided to start free entrance test coaching and MCQ’S Solving tricks Online. During my preparation for ETEA, i had made bundles of notes and i am looking forward to share all those notes with you here.

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Operating System

It is a system software that controls and co-ordinate the operation of a computer system.

Parts of the operating system:

  1. Resident Part

This part of operating system is smaller in size.

Residential part of an operating system is stored in stored in ROM.

Kernel “Nucleus” Is present in it.

It includes basic instructions and commands “BIOS“.

2.  Transient part

This part of an operating system is larger in size.

It resides inside  the secondary storage (Hard disk)

It includes all accessories system function.





EXAMPLES: Windows, Linux, Unix, Android, DOS, Symbian, IOS.




Static RAM & Dynamic RAM

RAM (Random Access Memory) is the primary memory used in a computer. Its individual memory cells can be accessed in any sequence, and therefore it is called the random access memory. RAMs are divided in to two categories as Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM (DRAM). SRAM uses transistors to store a single bit of data and it does not need to be periodically refreshed. DRAM uses a separate capacitor to store each bit of data and it needs to be periodically refreshed to maintain the charge in the capacitors.

What is Static RAM (SRAM)?

SRAM is a type of RAM and it is a volatile memory, which looses its data when the power is turned off. In a SRAM, each bit that stores data is made up of four or six transistors that make up a flip-flop. There are additional transistors that are used to control read and write accesses of storage cells. Even though typical SRAMs use six transistors to store each bit, there are SRAMs that use eight, ten or more transistors to store a single bit. When the number of transistors is reduced, the size of the memory cell decreases. Each SRAM cell can be in three different states called read, write and standby. A cell is in the reading state when data has been requested and it is in writing state when the data in the cell is modified. The cell is in the standby state when it is idling.

What is Dynamic RAM (DRAM)?

DRAM is also a volatile memory that uses separate capacitors to store each bit. Capacitors when not charged represent the value 0 of a bit and when charged represent the value 1. Since the capacitors discharge with time, they need to be refreshed periodically to maintain the values stored in them. Each memory cell in a DRAM consists of a capacitor and a transistor and these cells are arranged in a square array. DRAMS are widely used for main memories in personal computers and game stations since they are cheaper. DRAMs are manufactured as integrated circuits (ICs) that come in plastic packages with metal pins that could be connected in to busses. Currently there are DRAMs in the market that are manufactured as plug-in modules, which are easier to handle. Single In-line Pin Package (SIPP), Single In-line Memory Module (SIMM) and Dual In-line Memory Module (DIMM) are some examples of such modules.

What is the difference between Static RAM and Dynamic RAM?

Even though both SRAMs and DRAMs are volatile memories, they have some important differences. Since the DRAM requires a single capacitor and a transistor for each memory cell, it is much simpler in the structure than the SRAM, which uses six transistors for each memory cell. On the other hand, due to the use of capacitors, DRAM requires to be refreshed periodically as opposed to the SRAM. DRAMs are less expensive and slower than SRAMs. Therefore they are used for the large main memory of personal computers, workstations, etc., while SRAM are used for the smaller and faster cache memory.


The are two major differences between RAM (random access memory) and ROM (read-only memory). The first is that RAM requires a power source to retain its information, whereas ROM can retain its information when its power source is removed. Secondly they differ in the tasks they are used for, with ROM used to store programs and files and stockpile the data needed to run them. Any data created, or needed, by them to perform their allotted task is held in RAM.

The most common type of programmable ROM chip in a computer is the BIOS (basic input/output system), which is responsible for testing and powering up any hardware. It will then locate the operating system, load it and give it control of the computer’s systems. RAM is generally in the form of a chip, while ROM is composed of magnetic tapes. RAM is also significantly larger and more expensive than the equivalent amount of ROM.

They Key Difference between RAM and ROM are discussed below:

RAM is Random Access Memory.
ROM is Read Only Memory.

RAM is the memory available for the operating system, programs and processes to use when the computer is running.
ROM is the memory that comes with your computer that is pre-written to hold the instructions for booting-up the computer.

RAM requires a flow of electricity to retain data (e.g. the computer powered on).
ROM will retain data without the flow of electricity (e.g. when computer is powered off).

RAM is a type of volatile memory. Data in RAM is not permanently written. When you power off your computer the data stored in RAM is deleted.
ROM is a type of non- volatile memory. Data in ROM is permanently written and is not erased when you power off your computer.



A router relays information between two different computer networks. The most common use of a router is relaying data to and from a personal computer and the Internet.
A router is able to both send and receive packets of information from computer networks. If a person is connected to the Internet via an ISP, or Internet service provider, the router obtains packets from the personal computer, before sending them to the Internet using the ISP’s modem. The response, which is typically a Web page or other information from a queried address, returns to the router, which is then relayed back to the user’s computer.

USB Port

A USB port is a point of connection between a computer and other electronic devices such as tablets, smartphones, pen drives, card readers, printers and scanners. The USB port allows the transfer of data from one device to the other.

The abbreviation USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. It was first developed in the 1990s. Special cables and communication protocols are required for this data transfer to take place through a USB port. Not all USB ports transfer data at the same rate. For instance, a USB 3.0 port transfers data faster than a USB 2.0 port. In addition to standard USB connection types, there are also micro and macro connector types.

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